Electrical Wire Calculators

Copywrite 2010 by Boat-Project.Com



When selecting wire for a boat project, it can be surprisingly complex. US Coast Guard regulations (33CFR183) requires that the maximum current allowable in a given wire be limited by:

Each of these factors reduce the current carrying capability of the wire. For example; when a wire goes through an engine room, the temperature of the room is sufficiently high that it reduces the wire's current-carrying capacity. Therefore, even if only part of the wire goes through an engine room, the entire wire is subject to the reduction for engine room use. The first calculator addresses this characteristic.

A second factor in boat wiring is that for DC use, a wire will lose voltage depending on how much current is flowing and the distance of the wire. In extreme cases, the voltage drop may be so severe that the equipment to be powered by the wire will not function properly. In most cases, the wire size will have more than enough current capabiltiy, but be limited by its voltage drop. The second calculator is useful to determine this characteristic. If you do not understand high power DC voltage drops, you may wish to review my High Power Cabling Tutorial.

The first calculator then provides the required wire size that will be safe for the intended load, taking into account temperature of the wire's insulation, engine room heat, and heat generated by bundling wires (above 50 Volts). The second calculator provides an acceptable voltage drop for DC circuits taking into account the intended load and the length of the circuit.

When selecting a wire for DC use, both calculators must be applied; and the calculator providing the largest wire is the required wire. For AC use, only the first calculator is needed as the voltage drop in AC circuits as a function of wire lengths found in a boat is negligible.

Note that most so-called "Marine Grade" wire is rated at 105° C, but may also be derated to 75° C in Wet environments. It is essential you determine that temperature rating of the specific wire you intend to use.

WARNING:

US Code 33CFR183 is the sole authority for the determination of proper wire and cable used on a boat. The calculators on this page are presented only as a convenience, and are not intended to replace the information contained within US Code 33CFR183.

The calculators on this page are based on both AWG and SAE Circular Mil sizes. USCG 33CFR183 allows the use of both SAE and AWG wire for wiring under 50 Volts, but only AWG wire for use over 50 Volt applications (33CFR183.402).

Any use or information obtained from the calculators on this page must be compared with 33CFR183.435 Table 5 to ensure the results comply with federal regulations. The reader assumes all risks when using these calculators.

Marine Wire Size Calculator.

Expected Maximun Load (in amps):
Are conductors routed within the engine room?
Any conductors carrying more than 50 Volts?
Number of bundled current carrying conductors above 50 Volts (answer only if previous question was yes).
Wire Temperature Rating:
Required Wire Size:


Voltage Loss Calculator for 12 VDC Circuits.

Calculate for maximum voltage drop.
Circuit Length (one way, in feet):   Required Wire Size:
Expected Load (in amps):   Voltage Drop (volts):
Maximum Voltage Drop:   Voltage Drop (Percent):
Wire Type:  Max Current (Amps):
   (at rated voltage drop)


NMEA-2000 Backbone Calculator.

This calculator is for NMEA-2000 backbones, and allows the calculation of the expected voltage drop along the backbone as a function of the backbone cable (MIcro, Mid, or Mini), LENs (Load Equivalent Numbers), and cable length.

Backbone Cable Type:
Load Equivalency Number:
Backbone Segment Length:
Voltage Drop (volts):
Voltage Drop (percent):


Ohm's Law Pyramid for DC Circuits.

This is going to be somewhat "old school", but it is traditionally correct. Ohm's law is easy if you simply remember the Ohm's Law Pyramid, shown here. In traditional terms, "E" = Electromotive Force in Volts, or simply Voltage (new-age writings has this as V for voltage). Similarly, I = Current in Amps (again new-age is A), and R is Resistance in Ohms (well, at least that didn't change). To use the Pyramid, simply cover the value you want to solve for with your finger. For instance, if you want to solve for Current (I), cover I with your finger, and the equation becomes E-over-R, (E/R, or e divided by R), Similarly to solve for R, you cover R, and the result is E/I. And finally, to solve for E, you cover E, and the equation becomes I x R.

This is a handy little brain-reminder that should have you memorizing Ohm's Law in no time. I figure you can multiply and divide, so I didn't provide a calculator for Ohm's Law.

To solve for Power (in Watts), although not shown by the Pyramid, is easy: P = E X I

These equations are for DC (Direct Current) only. You cannot use any of these formulas for AC (Alternating Current), as phase, power factor, and other factors have to be considered.

References:
High Power Cabling Tutorial

 


Reader Comments

Home  Return

Privacy statement     Disclaimer    Copyright